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unistd.h

/* Copyright (C) 1991-1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   This file is part of the GNU C Library.

   The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
   modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
   version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

   The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
   Lesser General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License along with the GNU C Library; if not, write to the Free
   Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA
   02111-1307 USA.  */

/*
 *    POSIX Standard: 2.10 Symbolic Constants         <unistd.h>
 */

#ifndef     _UNISTD_H
#define     _UNISTD_H   1

#include <features.h>

__BEGIN_DECLS

/* These may be used to determine what facilities are present at compile time.
   Their values can be obtained at run time from `sysconf'.  */

/* POSIX Standard approved as ISO/IEC 9945-1 as of August, 1988 and
   extended by POSIX-1b (aka POSIX-4) and POSIX-1c (aka POSIX threads).  */
#define     _POSIX_VERSION    199506L

/* These are not #ifdef __USE_POSIX2 because they are
   in the theoretically application-owned namespace.  */

/* POSIX Standard approved as ISO/IEC 9945-2 as of December, 1993.  */
#define     _POSIX2_C_VERSION 199209L

/* The utilities on GNU systems also correspond to this version.  */
#define _POSIX2_VERSION 199209L

/* If defined, the implementation supports the
   C Language Bindings Option.  */
#define     _POSIX2_C_BIND    1

/* If defined, the implementation supports the
   C Language Development Utilities Option.  */
#define     _POSIX2_C_DEV     1

/* If defined, the implementation supports the
   Software Development Utilities Option.  */
#define     _POSIX2_SW_DEV    1

/* If defined, the implementation supports the
   creation of locales with the localedef utility.  */
#define _POSIX2_LOCALEDEF       1

/* X/Open version number to which the library conforms.  It is selectable.  */
#ifdef __USE_UNIX98
# define _XOPEN_VERSION 500
#else
# define _XOPEN_VERSION 4
#endif

/* Commands and utilities from XPG4 are available.  */
#define _XOPEN_XCU_VERSION    4

/* We are compatible with the old published standards as well.  */
#define _XOPEN_XPG2     1
#define _XOPEN_XPG3     1
#define _XOPEN_XPG4     1

/* The X/Open Unix extensions are available.  */
#define _XOPEN_UNIX     1

/* Encryption is present.  */
#define     _XOPEN_CRYPT      1

/* The enhanced internationalization capabilities according to XPG4.2
   are present.  */
#define     _XOPEN_ENH_I18N   1

/* The legacy interfaces are also available.  */
#define _XOPEN_LEGACY   1


/* Get values of POSIX options:

   If these symbols are defined, the corresponding features are
   always available.  If not, they may be available sometimes.
   The current values can be obtained with `sysconf'.

   _POSIX_JOB_CONTROL         Job control is supported.
   _POSIX_SAVED_IDS           Processes have a saved set-user-ID
                        and a saved set-group-ID.
   _POSIX_REALTIME_SIGNALS    Real-time, queued signals are supported.
   _POSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING Priority scheduling is supported.
   _POSIX_TIMERS        POSIX.4 clocks and timers are supported.
   _POSIX_ASYNCHRONOUS_IO     Asynchronous I/O is supported.
   _POSIX_PRIORITIZED_IO      Prioritized asynchronous I/O is supported.
   _POSIX_SYNCHRONIZED_IO     Synchronizing file data is supported.
   _POSIX_FSYNC               The fsync function is present.
   _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES        Mapping of files to memory is supported.
   _POSIX_MEMLOCK       Locking of all memory is supported.
   _POSIX_MEMLOCK_RANGE       Locking of ranges of memory is supported.
   _POSIX_MEMORY_PROTECTION   Setting of memory protections is supported.
   _POSIX_MESSAGE_PASSING     POSIX.4 message queues are supported.
   _POSIX_SEMAPHORES          POSIX.4 counting semaphores are supported.
   _POSIX_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS     POSIX.4 shared memory objects are supported.
   _POSIX_THREADS       POSIX.1c pthreads are supported.
   _POSIX_THREAD_ATTR_STACKADDR     Thread stack address attribute option supported.
   _POSIX_THREAD_ATTR_STACKSIZE     Thread stack size attribute option supported.
   _POSIX_THREAD_SAFE_FUNCTIONS     Thread-safe functions are supported.
   _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING
                        POSIX.1c thread execution scheduling supported.
   _POSIX_THREAD_PRIO_INHERIT Thread priority inheritance option supported.
   _POSIX_THREAD_PRIO_PROTECT Thread priority protection option supported.
   _POSIX_THREAD_PROCESS_SHARED     Process-shared synchronization supported.
   _POSIX_PII                 Protocol-independent interfaces are supported.
   _POSIX_PII_XTI       XTI protocol-indep. interfaces are supported.
   _POSIX_PII_SOCKET          Socket protocol-indep. interfaces are supported.
   _POSIX_PII_INTERNET        Internet family of protocols supported.
   _POSIX_PII_INTERNET_STREAM Connection-mode Internet protocol supported.
   _POSIX_PII_INTERNET_DGRAM  Connectionless Internet protocol supported.
   _POSIX_PII_OSI       ISO/OSI family of protocols supported.
   _POSIX_PII_OSI_COTS        Connection-mode ISO/OSI service supported.
   _POSIX_PII_OSI_CLTS        Connectionless ISO/OSI service supported.
   _POSIX_POLL                Implementation supports `poll' function.
   _POSIX_SELECT        Implementation supports `select' and `pselect'.

   _XOPEN_REALTIME            X/Open realtime support is available.
   _XOPEN_REALTIME_THREADS    X/Open realtime thread support is available.
   _XOPEN_SHM                 Shared memory interface according to XPG4.2.

   _XBS5_ILP32_OFF32          Implementation provides environment with 32-bit
                        int, long, pointer, and off_t types.
   _XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG         Implementation provides environment with 32-bit
                        int, long, and pointer and off_t with at least
                        64 bits.
   _XBS5_LP64_OFF64           Implementation provides environment with 32-bit
                        int, and 64-bit long, pointer, and off_t types.
   _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG         Implementation provides environment with at
                        least 32 bits int and long, pointer, and off_t
                        with at least 64 bits.

   If any of these symbols is defined as -1, the corresponding option is not
   true for any file.  If any is defined as other than -1, the corresponding
   option is true for all files.  If a symbol is not defined at all, the value
   for a specific file can be obtained from `pathconf' and `fpathconf'.

   _POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED    Only the super user can use `chown' to change
                        the owner of a file.  `chown' can only be used
                        to change the group ID of a file to a group of
                        which the calling process is a member.
   _POSIX_NO_TRUNC            Pathname components longer than
                        NAME_MAX generate an error.
   _POSIX_VDISABLE            If defined, if the value of an element of the
                        `c_cc' member of `struct termios' is
                        _POSIX_VDISABLE, no character will have the
                        effect associated with that element.
   _POSIX_SYNC_IO       Synchronous I/O may be performed.
   _POSIX_ASYNC_IO            Asynchronous I/O may be performed.
   _POSIX_PRIO_IO       Prioritized Asynchronous I/O may be performed.

   Support for the Large File Support interface is not generally available.
   If it is available the following constants are defined to one.
   _LFS64_LARGEFILE           Low-level I/O supports large files.
   _LFS64_STDIO               Standard I/O supports large files.
   */

#include <bits/posix_opt.h>

/* Get the environment definitions from Unix98.  */
#ifdef __USE_UNIX98
# include <bits/environments.h>
#endif

/* Standard file descriptors.  */
#define     STDIN_FILENO      0     /* Standard input.  */
#define     STDOUT_FILENO     1     /* Standard output.  */
#define     STDERR_FILENO     2     /* Standard error output.  */


/* All functions that are not declared anywhere else.  */

#include <bits/types.h>

#ifndef     __ssize_t_defined
typedef __ssize_t ssize_t;
# define __ssize_t_defined
#endif

#define     __need_size_t
#define __need_NULL
#include <stddef.h>

#ifdef __USE_XOPEN
/* The Single Unix specification says that some more types are
   available here.  */
# ifndef __gid_t_defined
typedef __gid_t gid_t;
#  define __gid_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __uid_t_defined
typedef __uid_t uid_t;
#  define __uid_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __off_t_defined
#  ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
typedef __off_t off_t;
#  else
typedef __off64_t off_t;
#  endif
#  define __off_t_defined
# endif
# if defined __USE_LARGEFILE64 && !defined __off64_t_defined
typedef __off64_t off64_t;
#  define __off64_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __useconds_t_defined
typedef __useconds_t useconds_t;
#  define __useconds_t_defined
# endif

# ifndef __pid_t_defined
typedef __pid_t pid_t;
#  define __pid_t_defined
# endif
#endif      /* X/Open */

#if defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
# ifndef __intptr_t_defined
typedef __intptr_t intptr_t;
#  define __intptr_t_defined
# endif
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN
# ifndef __socklen_t_defined
typedef __socklen_t socklen_t;
#  define __socklen_t_defined
# endif
#endif

/* Values for the second argument to access.
   These may be OR'd together.  */
#define     R_OK  4           /* Test for read permission.  */
#define     W_OK  2           /* Test for write permission.  */
#define     X_OK  1           /* Test for execute permission.  */
#define     F_OK  0           /* Test for existence.  */

/* Test for access to NAME using the real UID and real GID.  */
extern int access (__const char *__name, int __type) __THROW;

#ifdef __USE_GNU
/* Test for access to NAME using the effective UID and GID
   (as normal file operations use).  */
extern int euidaccess (__const char *__name, int __type) __THROW;
#endif


/* Values for the WHENCE argument to lseek.  */
#ifndef     _STDIO_H          /* <stdio.h> has the same definitions.  */
# define SEEK_SET 0     /* Seek from beginning of file.  */
# define SEEK_CUR 1     /* Seek from current position.  */
# define SEEK_END 2     /* Seek from end of file.  */
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD && !defined L_SET
/* Old BSD names for the same constants; just for compatibility.  */
# define L_SET          SEEK_SET
# define L_INCR         SEEK_CUR
# define L_XTND         SEEK_END
#endif


/* Move FD's file position to OFFSET bytes from the
   beginning of the file (if WHENCE is SEEK_SET),
   the current position (if WHENCE is SEEK_CUR),
   or the end of the file (if WHENCE is SEEK_END).
   Return the new file position.  */
#ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern __off_t lseek (int __fd, __off_t __offset, int __whence) __THROW;
#else
# ifdef __REDIRECT
extern __off64_t __REDIRECT (lseek,
                       (int __fd, __off64_t __offset, int __whence)
                       __THROW,
                       lseek64);
# else
#  define lseek lseek64
# endif
#endif
#ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern __off64_t lseek64 (int __fd, __off64_t __offset, int __whence) __THROW;
#endif

/* Close the file descriptor FD.  */
extern int close (int __fd) __THROW;

/* Read NBYTES into BUF from FD.  Return the
   number read, -1 for errors or 0 for EOF.  */
extern ssize_t read (int __fd, void *__buf, size_t __nbytes) __THROW;

/* Write N bytes of BUF to FD.  Return the number written, or -1.  */
extern ssize_t write (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n) __THROW;

#ifdef __USE_UNIX98
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern ssize_t pread (int __fd, void *__buf, size_t __nbytes, __off_t __offset)
     __THROW;
extern ssize_t pwrite (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n,
                   __off_t __offset) __THROW;
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern ssize_t __REDIRECT (pread, (int __fd, void *__buf, size_t __nbytes,
                           __off64_t __offset) __THROW,
                     pread64);
extern ssize_t __REDIRECT (pwrite, (int __fd, __const void *__buf,
                            size_t __nbytes, __off64_t __offset)
                     __THROW,
                  pwrite64);
#  else
#   define pread pread64
#   define pwrite pwrite64
#  endif
# endif

# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
/* Read NBYTES into BUF from FD at the given position OFFSET without
   changing the file pointer.  Return the number read, -1 for errors
   or 0 for EOF.  */
extern ssize_t pread64 (int __fd, void *__buf, size_t __nbytes,
                  __off64_t __offset) __THROW;
/* Write N bytes of BUF to FD at the given position OFFSET without
   changing the file pointer.  Return the number written, or -1.  */
extern ssize_t pwrite64 (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n,
                   __off64_t __offset) __THROW;
# endif
#endif

/* Create a one-way communication channel (pipe).
   If successful, two file descriptors are stored in PIPEDES;
   bytes written on PIPEDES[1] can be read from PIPEDES[0].
   Returns 0 if successful, -1 if not.  */
extern int pipe (int __pipedes[2]) __THROW;

/* Schedule an alarm.  In SECONDS seconds, the process will get a SIGALRM.
   If SECONDS is zero, any currently scheduled alarm will be cancelled.
   The function returns the number of seconds remaining until the last
   alarm scheduled would have signaled, or zero if there wasn't one.
   There is no return value to indicate an error, but you can set `errno'
   to 0 and check its value after calling `alarm', and this might tell you.
   The signal may come late due to processor scheduling.  */
extern unsigned int alarm (unsigned int __seconds) __THROW;

/* Make the process sleep for SECONDS seconds, or until a signal arrives
   and is not ignored.  The function returns the number of seconds less
   than SECONDS which it actually slept (thus zero if it slept the full time).
   If a signal handler does a `longjmp' or modifies the handling of the
   SIGALRM signal while inside `sleep' call, the handling of the SIGALRM
   signal afterwards is undefined.  There is no return value to indicate
   error, but if `sleep' returns SECONDS, it probably didn't work.  */
extern unsigned int sleep (unsigned int __seconds) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Set an alarm to go off (generating a SIGALRM signal) in VALUE
   microseconds.  If INTERVAL is nonzero, when the alarm goes off, the
   timer is reset to go off every INTERVAL microseconds thereafter.
   Returns the number of microseconds remaining before the alarm.  */
extern __useconds_t ualarm (__useconds_t __value, __useconds_t __interval)
     __THROW;

/* Sleep USECONDS microseconds, or until a signal arrives that is not blocked
   or ignored.  */
extern int usleep (__useconds_t __useconds) __THROW;
#endif


/* Suspend the process until a signal arrives.
   This always returns -1 and sets `errno' to EINTR.  */
extern int pause (void) __THROW;


/* Change the owner and group of FILE.  */
extern int chown (__const char *__file, __uid_t __owner, __gid_t __group)
     __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Change the owner and group of the file that FD is open on.  */
extern int fchown (int __fd, __uid_t __owner, __gid_t __group) __THROW;


/* Change owner and group of FILE, if it is a symbolic
   link the ownership of the symbolic link is changed.  */
extern int lchown (__const char *__file, __uid_t __owner, __gid_t __group)
     __THROW;

#endif /* Use BSD || X/Open Unix.  */

/* Change the process's working directory to PATH.  */
extern int chdir (__const char *__path) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Change the process's working directory to the one FD is open on.  */
extern int fchdir (int __fd) __THROW;
#endif

/* Get the pathname of the current working directory,
   and put it in SIZE bytes of BUF.  Returns NULL if the
   directory couldn't be determined or SIZE was too small.
   If successful, returns BUF.  In GNU, if BUF is NULL,
   an array is allocated with `malloc'; the array is SIZE
   bytes long, unless SIZE == 0, in which case it is as
   big as necessary.  */
extern char *getcwd (char *__buf, size_t __size) __THROW;

#ifdef      __USE_GNU
/* Return a malloc'd string containing the current directory name.
   If the environment variable `PWD' is set, and its value is correct,
   that value is used.  */
extern char *get_current_dir_name (void) __THROW;
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Put the absolute pathname of the current working directory in BUF.
   If successful, return BUF.  If not, put an error message in
   BUF and return NULL.  BUF should be at least PATH_MAX bytes long.  */
extern char *getwd (char *__buf) __THROW;
#endif


/* Duplicate FD, returning a new file descriptor on the same file.  */
extern int dup (int __fd) __THROW;

/* Duplicate FD to FD2, closing FD2 and making it open on the same file.  */
extern int dup2 (int __fd, int __fd2) __THROW;

/* NULL-terminated array of "NAME=VALUE" environment variables.  */
extern char **__environ;
#ifdef __USE_GNU
extern char **environ;
#endif


/* Replace the current process, executing PATH with arguments ARGV and
   environment ENVP.  ARGV and ENVP are terminated by NULL pointers.  */
extern int execve (__const char *__path, char *__const __argv[],
               char *__const __envp[]) __THROW;

#ifdef __USE_GNU
/* Execute the file FD refers to, overlaying the running program image.
   ARGV and ENVP are passed to the new program, as for `execve'.  */
extern int fexecve (int __fd, char *__const __argv[], char *__const __envp[])
     __THROW;
#endif


/* Execute PATH with arguments ARGV and environment from `environ'.  */
extern int execv (__const char *__path, char *__const __argv[]) __THROW;

/* Execute PATH with all arguments after PATH until a NULL pointer,
   and the argument after that for environment.  */
extern int execle (__const char *__path, __const char *__arg, ...) __THROW;

/* Execute PATH with all arguments after PATH until
   a NULL pointer and environment from `environ'.  */
extern int execl (__const char *__path, __const char *__arg, ...) __THROW;

/* Execute FILE, searching in the `PATH' environment variable if it contains
   no slashes, with arguments ARGV and environment from `environ'.  */
extern int execvp (__const char *__file, char *__const __argv[]) __THROW;

/* Execute FILE, searching in the `PATH' environment variable if
   it contains no slashes, with all arguments after FILE until a
   NULL pointer and environment from `environ'.  */
extern int execlp (__const char *__file, __const char *__arg, ...) __THROW;


#if defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN
/* Add INC to priority of the current process.  */
extern int nice (int __inc) __THROW;
#endif


/* Terminate program execution with the low-order 8 bits of STATUS.  */
extern void _exit (int __status) __attribute__ ((__noreturn__));


/* Get the `_PC_*' symbols for the NAME argument to `pathconf' and `fpathconf';
   the `_SC_*' symbols for the NAME argument to `sysconf';
   and the `_CS_*' symbols for the NAME argument to `confstr'.  */
#include <bits/confname.h>

/* Get file-specific configuration information about PATH.  */
extern long int pathconf (__const char *__path, int __name) __THROW;

/* Get file-specific configuration about descriptor FD.  */
extern long int fpathconf (int __fd, int __name) __THROW;

/* Get the value of the system variable NAME.  */
extern long int sysconf (int __name) __THROW __attribute__ ((__const__));

#ifdef      __USE_POSIX2
/* Get the value of the string-valued system variable NAME.  */
extern size_t confstr (int __name, char *__buf, size_t __len) __THROW;
#endif


/* Get the process ID of the calling process.  */
extern __pid_t getpid (void) __THROW;

/* Get the process ID of the calling process's parent.  */
extern __pid_t getppid (void) __THROW;

/* Get the process group ID of the calling process.
   This function is different on old BSD. */
#ifndef __FAVOR_BSD
extern __pid_t getpgrp (void) __THROW;
#else
# ifdef __REDIRECT
extern __pid_t __REDIRECT (getpgrp, (__pid_t __pid) __THROW, __getpgid);
# else
#  define getpgrp __getpgid
# endif
#endif

/* Get the process group ID of process PID.  */
extern __pid_t __getpgid (__pid_t __pid) __THROW;
#ifdef __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
extern __pid_t getpgid (__pid_t __pid) __THROW;
#endif


/* Set the process group ID of the process matching PID to PGID.
   If PID is zero, the current process's process group ID is set.
   If PGID is zero, the process ID of the process is used.  */
extern int setpgid (__pid_t __pid, __pid_t __pgid) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_SVID || defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Both System V and BSD have `setpgrp' functions, but with different
   calling conventions.  The BSD function is the same as POSIX.1 `setpgid'
   (above).  The System V function takes no arguments and puts the calling
   process in its on group like `setpgid (0, 0)'.

   New programs should always use `setpgid' instead.

   The default in GNU is to provide the System V function.  The BSD
   function is available under -D_BSD_SOURCE.  */

# ifndef __FAVOR_BSD

/* Set the process group ID of the calling process to its own PID.
   This is exactly the same as `setpgid (0, 0)'.  */
extern int setpgrp (void) __THROW;

# else

/* Another name for `setpgid' (above).  */
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT (setpgrp, (__pid_t __pid, __pid_t __pgrp) __THROW,
                   setpgid);
#  else
#   define setpgrp setpgid
#  endif

# endif     /* Favor BSD.  */
#endif      /* Use SVID or BSD.  */

/* Create a new session with the calling process as its leader.
   The process group IDs of the session and the calling process
   are set to the process ID of the calling process, which is returned.  */
extern __pid_t setsid (void) __THROW;

#ifdef __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Return the session ID of the given process.  */
extern __pid_t getsid (__pid_t __pid) __THROW;
#endif

/* Get the real user ID of the calling process.  */
extern __uid_t getuid (void) __THROW;

/* Get the effective user ID of the calling process.  */
extern __uid_t geteuid (void) __THROW;

/* Get the real group ID of the calling process.  */
extern __gid_t getgid (void) __THROW;

/* Get the effective group ID of the calling process.  */
extern __gid_t getegid (void) __THROW;

/* If SIZE is zero, return the number of supplementary groups
   the calling process is in.  Otherwise, fill in the group IDs
   of its supplementary groups in LIST and return the number written.  */
extern int getgroups (int __size, __gid_t __list[]) __THROW;

#ifdef      __USE_GNU
/* Return nonzero iff the calling process is in group GID.  */
extern int group_member (__gid_t __gid) __THROW;
#endif

/* Set the user ID of the calling process to UID.
   If the calling process is the super-user, set the real
   and effective user IDs, and the saved set-user-ID to UID;
   if not, the effective user ID is set to UID.  */
extern int setuid (__uid_t __uid) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Set the real user ID of the calling process to RUID,
   and the effective user ID of the calling process to EUID.  */
extern int setreuid (__uid_t __ruid, __uid_t __euid) __THROW;
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN2K
/* Set the effective user ID of the calling process to UID.  */
extern int seteuid (__uid_t __uid) __THROW;
#endif /* Use BSD.  */

/* Set the group ID of the calling process to GID.
   If the calling process is the super-user, set the real
   and effective group IDs, and the saved set-group-ID to GID;
   if not, the effective group ID is set to GID.  */
extern int setgid (__gid_t __gid) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Set the real group ID of the calling process to RGID,
   and the effective group ID of the calling process to EGID.  */
extern int setregid (__gid_t __rgid, __gid_t __egid) __THROW;
#endif

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN2K
/* Set the effective group ID of the calling process to GID.  */
extern int setegid (__gid_t __gid) __THROW;
#endif /* Use BSD.  */

#ifdef __USE_GNU
/* Fetch the effective user ID, real user ID, and saved-set user ID,
   of the calling process.  */
extern int getresuid (__uid_t *__euid, __uid_t *__ruid, __uid_t *__suid);

/* Fetch the effective group ID, real group ID, and saved-set group ID,
   of the calling process.  */
extern int getresgid (__gid_t *__egid, __gid_t *__rgid, __gid_t *__sgid);

/* Set the effective user ID, real user ID, and saved-set user ID,
   of the calling process to EUID, RUID, and SUID, respectively.  */
extern int setresuid (__uid_t __euid, __uid_t __ruid, __uid_t __suid);

/* Set the effective group ID, real group ID, and saved-set group ID,
   of the calling process to EGID, RGID, and SGID, respectively.  */
extern int setresgid (__gid_t __egid, __gid_t __rgid, __gid_t __sgid);
#endif


/* Clone the calling process, creating an exact copy.
   Return -1 for errors, 0 to the new process,
   and the process ID of the new process to the old process.  */
extern __pid_t fork (void) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Clone the calling process, but without copying the whole address space.
   The calling process is suspended until the new process exits or is
   replaced by a call to `execve'.  Return -1 for errors, 0 to the new process,
   and the process ID of the new process to the old process.  */
extern __pid_t vfork (void) __THROW;
#endif /* Use BSD. */


/* Return the pathname of the terminal FD is open on, or NULL on errors.
   The returned storage is good only until the next call to this function.  */
extern char *ttyname (int __fd) __THROW;

/* Store at most BUFLEN characters of the pathname of the terminal FD is
   open on in BUF.  Return 0 on success, otherwise an error number.  */
extern int ttyname_r (int __fd, char *__buf, size_t __buflen) __THROW;

/* Return 1 if FD is a valid descriptor associated
   with a terminal, zero if not.  */
extern int isatty (int __fd) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD \
    || (defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED && !defined __USE_UNIX98)
/* Return the index into the active-logins file (utmp) for
   the controlling terminal.  */
extern int ttyslot (void) __THROW;
#endif


/* Make a link to FROM named TO.  */
extern int link (__const char *__from, __const char *__to) __THROW;

#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
/* Make a symbolic link to FROM named TO.  */
extern int symlink (__const char *__from, __const char *__to) __THROW;

/* Read the contents of the symbolic link PATH into no more than
   LEN bytes of BUF.  The contents are not null-terminated.
   Returns the number of characters read, or -1 for errors.  */
extern int readlink (__const char *__restrict __path, char *__restrict __buf,
                 size_t __len) __THROW;
#endif /* Use BSD.  */

/* Remove the link NAME.  */
extern int unlink (__const char *__name) __THROW;

/* Remove the directory PATH.  */
extern int rmdir (__const char *__path) __THROW;


/* Return the foreground process group ID of FD.  */
extern __pid_t tcgetpgrp (int __fd) __THROW;

/* Set the foreground process group ID of FD set PGRP_ID.  */
extern int tcsetpgrp (int __fd, __pid_t __pgrp_id) __THROW;


/* Return the login name of the user.  */
extern char *getlogin (void) __THROW;
#if defined __USE_REENTRANT || defined __USE_UNIX98
/* Return at most NAME_LEN characters of the login name of the user in NAME.
   If it cannot be determined or some other error occurred, return the error
   code.  Otherwise return 0.  */
extern int getlogin_r (char *__name, size_t __name_len) __THROW;
#endif

#ifdef      __USE_BSD
/* Set the login name returned by `getlogin'.  */
extern int setlogin (__const char *__name) __THROW;
#endif


#ifdef      __USE_POSIX2
/* Get definitions and prototypes for functions to process the
   arguments in ARGV (ARGC of them, minus the program name) for
   options given in OPTS.  */
# define __need_getopt
# include <getopt.h>
#endif


#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_UNIX98
/* Put the name of the current host in no more than LEN bytes of NAME.
   The result is null-terminated if LEN is large enough for the full
   name and the terminator.  */
extern int gethostname (char *__name, size_t __len) __THROW;
#endif


#if defined __USE_BSD || (defined __USE_XOPEN && !defined __USE_UNIX98)
/* Set the name of the current host to NAME, which is LEN bytes long.
   This call is restricted to the super-user.  */
extern int sethostname (__const char *__name, size_t __len) __THROW;

/* Set the current machine's Internet number to ID.
   This call is restricted to the super-user.  */
extern int sethostid (long int __id) __THROW;


/* Get and set the NIS (aka YP) domain name, if any.
   Called just like `gethostname' and `sethostname'.
   The NIS domain name is usually the empty string when not using NIS.  */
extern int getdomainname (char *__name, size_t __len) __THROW;
extern int setdomainname (__const char *__name, size_t __len) __THROW;


/* Revoke access permissions to all processes currently communicating
   with the control terminal, and then send a SIGHUP signal to the process
   group of the control terminal.  */
extern int vhangup (void) __THROW;

/* Revoke the access of all descriptors currently open on FILE.  */
extern int revoke (__const char *__file) __THROW;


/* Enable statistical profiling, writing samples of the PC into at most
   SIZE bytes of SAMPLE_BUFFER; every processor clock tick while profiling
   is enabled, the system examines the user PC and increments
   SAMPLE_BUFFER[((PC - OFFSET) / 2) * SCALE / 65536].  If SCALE is zero,
   disable profiling.  Returns zero on success, -1 on error.  */
extern int profil (unsigned short int *__sample_buffer, size_t __size,
               size_t __offset, unsigned int __scale) __THROW;


/* Turn accounting on if NAME is an existing file.  The system will then write
   a record for each process as it terminates, to this file.  If NAME is NULL,
   turn accounting off.  This call is restricted to the super-user.  */
extern int acct (__const char *__name) __THROW;


/* Successive calls return the shells listed in `/etc/shells'.  */
extern char *getusershell (void) __THROW;
extern void endusershell (void) __THROW; /* Discard cached info.  */
extern void setusershell (void) __THROW; /* Rewind and re-read the file.  */


/* Put the program in the background, and dissociate from the controlling
   terminal.  If NOCHDIR is zero, do `chdir ("/")'.  If NOCLOSE is zero,
   redirects stdin, stdout, and stderr to /dev/null.  */
extern int daemon (int __nochdir, int __noclose) __THROW;
#endif /* Use BSD || X/Open.  */


#if defined __USE_BSD || (defined __USE_XOPEN && !defined __USE_XOPEN2K)
/* Make PATH be the root directory (the starting point for absolute paths).
   This call is restricted to the super-user.  */
extern int chroot (__const char *__path) __THROW;

/* Prompt with PROMPT and read a string from the terminal without echoing.
   Uses /dev/tty if possible; otherwise stderr and stdin.  */
extern char *getpass (__const char *__prompt) __THROW;
#endif /* Use BSD || X/Open.  */


#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN
/* Make all changes done to FD actually appear on disk.  */
extern int fsync (int __fd) __THROW;
#endif /* Use BSD || X/Open.  */


#if defined __USE_BSD || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED

/* Return the current machine's Internet number.  */
extern long int gethostid (void) __THROW;

/* Make all changes done to all files actually appear on disk.  */
extern void sync (void) __THROW;


/* Return the number of bytes in a page.  This is the system's page size,
   which is not necessarily the same as the hardware page size.  */
extern int getpagesize (void)  __THROW __attribute__ ((__const__));


/* Truncate FILE to LENGTH bytes.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int truncate (__const char *__file, __off_t __length) __THROW;
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT (truncate,
                   (__const char *__file, __off64_t __length) __THROW,
                   truncate64);
#  else
#   define truncate truncate64
#  endif
# endif
# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int truncate64 (__const char *__file, __off64_t __length) __THROW;
# endif

/* Truncate the file FD is open on to LENGTH bytes.  */
# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int ftruncate (int __fd, __off_t __length) __THROW;
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT (ftruncate, (int __fd, __off64_t __length) __THROW,
                   ftruncate64);
#  else
#   define ftruncate ftruncate64
#  endif
# endif
# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int ftruncate64 (int __fd, __off64_t __length) __THROW;
# endif


/* Return the maximum number of file descriptors
   the current process could possibly have.  */
extern int getdtablesize (void) __THROW;

#endif /* Use BSD || X/Open Unix.  */


#if defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED

/* Set the end of accessible data space (aka "the break") to ADDR.
   Returns zero on success and -1 for errors (with errno set).  */
extern int brk (void *__addr) __THROW;

/* Increase or decrease the end of accessible data space by DELTA bytes.
   If successful, returns the address the previous end of data space
   (i.e. the beginning of the new space, if DELTA > 0);
   returns (void *) -1 for errors (with errno set).  */
extern void *sbrk (intptr_t __delta) __THROW;
#endif


#ifdef __USE_MISC
/* Invoke `system call' number SYSNO, passing it the remaining arguments.
   This is completely system-dependent, and not often useful.

   In Unix, `syscall' sets `errno' for all errors and most calls return -1
   for errors; in many systems you cannot pass arguments or get return
   values for all system calls (`pipe', `fork', and `getppid' typically
   among them).

   In Mach, all system calls take normal arguments and always return an
   error code (zero for success).  */
extern long int syscall (long int __sysno, ...) __THROW;

#endif      /* Use misc.  */


#if (defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED) && !defined F_LOCK
/* NOTE: These declarations also appear in <fcntl.h>; be sure to keep both
   files consistent.  Some systems have them there and some here, and some
   software depends on the macros being defined without including both.  */

/* `lockf' is a simpler interface to the locking facilities of `fcntl'.
   LEN is always relative to the current file position.
   The CMD argument is one of the following.  */

# define F_ULOCK 0      /* Unlock a previously locked region.  */
# define F_LOCK  1      /* Lock a region for exclusive use.  */
# define F_TLOCK 2      /* Test and lock a region for exclusive use.  */
# define F_TEST  3      /* Test a region for other processes locks.  */

# ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
extern int lockf (int __fd, int __cmd, __off_t __len) __THROW;
# else
#  ifdef __REDIRECT
extern int __REDIRECT (lockf, (int __fd, int __cmd, __off64_t __len) __THROW,
                   lockf64);
#  else
#   define lockf lockf64
#  endif
# endif
# ifdef __USE_LARGEFILE64
extern int lockf64 (int __fd, int __cmd, __off64_t __len) __THROW;
# endif
#endif /* Use misc and F_LOCK not already defined.  */


#ifdef __USE_GNU

/* Evaluate EXPRESSION, and repeat as long as it returns -1 with `errno'
   set to EINTR.  */

# define TEMP_FAILURE_RETRY(expression) \
  (__extension__                                            \
    ({ long int __result;                                         \
       do __result = (long int) (expression);                           \
       while (__result == -1L && errno == EINTR);                       \
       __result; }))
#endif

#if defined __USE_POSIX199309 || defined __USE_UNIX98
/* Synchronize at least the data part of a file with the underlying
   media.  */
extern int fdatasync (int __fildes) __THROW;
#endif /* Use POSIX199309 */


/* XPG4.2 specifies that prototypes for the encryption functions must
   be defined here.  */
#ifdef      __USE_XOPEN
/* Encrypt at most 8 characters from KEY using salt to perturb DES.  */
extern char *crypt (__const char *__key, __const char *__salt) __THROW;

/* Encrypt data in BLOCK in place if EDFLAG is zero; otherwise decrypt
   block in place.  */
extern void encrypt (char *__block, int __edflag) __THROW;


/* Swab pairs bytes in the first N bytes of the area pointed to by
   FROM and copy the result to TO.  The value of TO must not be in the
   range [FROM - N + 1, FROM - 1].  If N is odd the first byte in FROM
   is without partner.  */
extern void swab (__const void *__restrict __from, void *__restrict __to,
              ssize_t __n) __THROW;
#endif


/* The Single Unix specification demands this prototype to be here.
   It is also found in <stdio.h>.  */
#ifdef __USE_XOPEN
/* Return the name of the controlling terminal.  */
extern char *ctermid (char *__s) __THROW;
#endif


#ifdef __USE_POSIX199309
/* This function is only available if the system has POSIX threads.  */

/* Install handlers to be called when a new process is created with FORK.
   The PREPARE handler is called in the parent process just before performing
   FORK. The PARENT handler is called in the parent process just after FORK.
   The CHILD handler is called in the child process.  Each of the three
   handlers can be NULL, meaning that no handler needs to be called at that
   point.
   PTHREAD_ATFORK can be called several times, in which case the PREPARE
   handlers are called in LIFO order (last added with PTHREAD_ATFORK,
   first called before FORK), and the PARENT and CHILD handlers are called
   in FIFO (first added, first called). */
extern int pthread_atfork (void (*__prepare) (void),
                     void (*__parent) (void),
                     void (*__child) (void)) __THROW;
#endif

__END_DECLS

#endif /* unistd.h  */

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